just a completely nasty beast, really, and even so this is only a partial list.  a few more sources may develop over time, especially the source documents.  the purpose of this page is two-fold:  an accessible, malleable list for myself, and to share some of the basic resources and influences to any who might be interested.  I will try and get up a few short sentences about each reference in the history/theory section as to what they are about and how they pertain specifically to the “landscapes and instruments” project.

Historian Herbert Eugene Bolton; his theory of hemispheric studies reshaped the way that American settlement is understood and studied in the social sciences; unfortunately his most influential contributions and insights- namely, that the Americas must be studied and understood as a hemispheric condition- right as the design academy was making the European Turn, and so they have largely been disregarded in the fields of landscape and architecture.


Barrenechea, Antonio- “Good Neighbor/Bad Neighbor:  Boltonian Americanism and Hemispheric Studies” (2010)

Berrizbeitia, Anita- “Hybrid Modernism”

Bryant, Levi- Democracy of Objects

Bryant, Levi et al- The Speculative Turn:  Continental Materialism and Realism

Bolton, Herbert Eugene- “Epic of Greater America” (1933), “Defensive Spanish Expansion and the Significance of the Borderlands” (1929)

Cosgrove, Denis- “Landscape as Cultural Product”

Cronon, William- “The Trouble with Wilderness”

Davis, Mike- Magical Urbanism (2000)

Dewey, Robert- The Philosophy of John Dewey:  A Critical Exposition of his Method, Metaphysics, and Theory of Knowledge.  (1977)

Dussel, Enrique- The Invention of the Americas (1995)

Harman, Graham- Guerrilla Metaphysics

Harvey, David- “Modernity and Modernism”

Marx, Roberto Burle- “Landscape and Ecology”

McLuhan, Marshall- “Understanding Media” (1964)

Mignolo, Walter- “Coloniality at Large:  The Western Hemisphere and the Colonial Horizon of Modernity” (2010)

Morton, Timothy- Dark Ecology

Nye, David- Technology Matters

Saavedra, Maria Ines- The City Revealed:  Essays on Buenos Aires; urbanism, aesthetics, and art criticism in The Nation,  1915- 1925 (2004)

Smithson, Robert- Frederick Law Olmsted and the Dialectical Landscape

Sola-Morales, Enrique- “Terrain Vague” (1995)

Tonkinwise, Cameron- “Practicing Sustainability by Design” (2007)

Turner, Frederick Jackson- “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893)

Webb, Walter Prescott- The Great Frontier (1952)


McCarthy, Cormac- “The Border Trilogy” (1993- 1999)

Bolano, Roberto- The Savage Detectives (1998)


Government Documents and Institutional Reports

Integrated Environmental Sanitation Plan (PISA), March 2010, ACUMAR.  The governing document of the water basin authority that guides the implementation and management of the projects for the cleaning and remediation of the basin.

Improving Water Governance at the River Basin Level, World Water Week, September 5-11, 2010.  A short document summarizing the known contemporary environmental and social situation of the Riachuelo Water basin and outlining the institutional and financial framework of the water basin authority and its effects to date on the effort to manage development at the scale of the watershed.

Avanza el Saneamiento del Riachuelo, ACUMAR memo, July 7th, 2010.  Here the current director of the wáter basin authority reports that the water basin authority, after two years of operating, has the appropriate institutional framework and its own capital and operational budget of more than 400 million pesos AR.  The president states that more than 13,000 operational industries within the basin have been registered, and that inspections are taking place.  Significantly, he states that the situation will take at least 15 or 20 years to remedy.

Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Adaptable Program Loan in the Amound of U$840 Million to the Argentine Republic for the Riachuelo Basin Sustainable Development Project Phase 1 for the First Phase of the Matanza-Riachuelo Basin Sustainable Development Program.  World Bank Official Document.  April 27, 2009.  This document goes in to the funding and governing policy and structures for the disbursement of the loan to be used to implement the PISA.


“La Corte ordeno a la Nacion, la ciudad y la provincia a sanear el Riachuelo.”  La Nacion.  July 8, 2008.  The Supreme Court of the nation ordered the governments of the nation, the city, and the state to execute projects to clean the Riachuelo.  This ruling was the establishing of accountability of these ruling governments as well as a schedule for beginning the work.  The ruling set forth three parameters- protect the health and quality of life of the inhabitants of the river basin, restore the environment in each of its components (water, air, soil).  Specifically, this is to entail- organizing a public system of digital information, clean the existing dumps, regulate industrial contamination, clean the riparian zones of the river, expand the water and sewer networks, and create an emergency plan.  A federal delegate judge in the municipality of Quilmes was designated with the execution of the ruling.

“Una Extensa historia de promesas incumplidas.”  December 30, 2010.  Clarin.  A long history of broken promises, this article recounts the long history of the Riachuelo, its central role in the founding and industrialization of the city, and the many missteps and broken promises in the effort to clean it.  It sets the current developments of the ACUMAR in a somber light.

“El Banco Mundial aprobo un plan de creditos de has US 3300 millones para la Argentina.”  La Nacion.  June 9th, 2012.  The announcement that the World Bank is extending a line of credit to the Argentine government of up to 3.3 billion dollars.  Included in this is U$ 840 for the Riachuelo.  Relatedly, U$450 will be available for social programs, some of which will be acutated in the Riachuelo.

“La Corte Suprema y el Riachuelo.”  La Nacion.  July 21, 2008.  This article summarizes the legal situation surrounding the Riachuelo, especially with regard to the Mendoza court case.

Scientific Publications

Meegoda, Jay N. et al.  Dredging and Management of Dredged.  Geotechnical Special Publication No. 65.  American Society of Civil Engineers.  New York, NY.  1997.

National Research Council of the National Academies.  Sediment Dredging at Superfund Megasites, Assessing the Effectiveness.  The National Academies Press,  Washington, D.C.  2007.

Jorge Herkovits, Cristina Perez-Coll, Francisco D. Herkovits.  “Ecotoxicological studies of environmental samples from Buenos Aires area using a standardized amphibian embryo toxicity test (AMPHITOX).”  Environmental Pollution, Volume 116, Issue 1, January 2002, Pages 177-183.  The toxicity of 34 environmental samples from potentially polluted and reference stations were evaluated by means of the AMPHITOX test from acute to chronic exposure according to the toxicity found in each sample. The samples were obtained from surface and ground water, leaches, industrial effluents and soils. The data, expressed in acute, short-term chronic and chronic Toxicity Units (TUa, TUstc and TUc) resulted in a maximal value of 1000 TUc, found in a leach, while the lower toxicity value was 1.4 TUa corresponding to two surface water samples. In five samples (four providing from reference places) no toxicity was detected. The results point out the possibility of evaluating the toxicity of a wide diversity of samples by means of AMPHITOX as a customized toxicity test. The fact that almost all samples with suspected toxicity in rivers and streams from the Metropolitan area of Buenos Aires city resulted toxic, indicates the need of enhanced stewardship of chemical substances for environmental and human health protection purposes.

A. Fernández Cirelli, C. Ojeda.  “Wastewater management in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina.”  Desalination, Volume 218, Issues 1-3, 5 January 2008, Pages 52-61.  The city of Buenos Aires, the capital town of Argentina, is located besides De la Plata river, and is surrounded by a continuum of built areas, the so-called Greater Buenos Aires. The present situation of sewerage system is described and analysed taking into account: distance from Buenos Aires city, geographic location, socio-economic level, wastewater treatment technologies, management and regulatory agencies. The existence of a sewerage system does not mean automatically wastewater treatment, as frequently in Latin America. The water quality of wastewater receiving bodies is a matter of increasing concern, since large quantity of pollutants is daily discharged.

J.C. Colombo, N. Cappelletti, A. Barreda, M.C. Migoya, C.N. Skorupka.  “Vertical fluxes and accumulation of PCBs in coastal sediments of the Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina.”  Chemosphere, Volume 61, Issue 9, December 2005, Pages 1345-1357.  Settling particles and underlying sediments collected at 1, 2.5 and 4 km along offshore transects in the urbanized sector of the Río de la Plata were analyzed to evaluate the sources and accumulation of PCBs. Total PCB concentrations range from <0.1 to 100 ng g−1 and include variability associated to North–South and offshore gradients reflecting the impact of coastal discharges. Highest concentrations were recorded in the industrialized Central area close to Buenos Aires (61 ± 37 ng g−1 at 1 km) relative to cleaner northern stations (3.6 ± 2.2 ng g−1) and southward sites (37 ± 2.8 ng g−1), affected by transport of particulate PCBs by coastal currents.

Alberto Lamagna, Silvia Reich, Daniel Rodríguez, Alfredo Boselli, Daniel Cicerone.  “The use of an electronic nose to characterize emissions from a highly polluted river.”  Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Volume 131, Issue 1, 14 April 2008, Pages 121-124.  The Riachuelo–Matanza basin area (2.240 km2) is located in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. This area is affected by intensive and extensive agricultural activities, and bears almost 3,000,000 inhabitants and more than 10,000 industries, that release their effluents to the main collector of the basin, the Riachuelo River. It is a highly polluted area and the quality of water, soil and air is severely impaired causing chronic health problems. As part of an interdisciplinary study undertaken by local institutions to reach an environmental quality diagnosis and analysis of the pollutants dynamics in the basin system we have measured, with an electronic nose, the air immediately above the water in several points at the Riachuelo River mouth where the painteresque La Boca district is located. Water quality parameters simultaneously collected at the same sites were analyzed and correlated with the electronic nose response. This study is only exploratory and focuses on the viability of using an electronic nose to locate conflictive emissions throughout a given zone.

Nora Gómez.  “Use of epipelic diatoms for evaluation of water quality in the Matanza-Riachuelo”(Argentina), a pampean plain river.  Water Research, Volume 32, Issue 7, July 1998, Pages 2029-2034.  Epipelic diatom assemblages have been used to evaluate water quality in the Matanza-Riachuelo river basin. Twenty-three sites were sampled in April, May, June and August 1995, before the setup of restoration programs. The Matanza-Riachuelo river basin is located in N.E. Buenos Aires province. It runs across one of the most industrialized and populous zones of Argentina, for which it is subject to strong anthropogenic disturbances. A total number of 97 taxa were identified of which only 37 were abundant. Navicula cryptocephala, Nitzschia palea and N. umbonata occur in the whole basin though more frequent downstream; Stephanodiscus hantzschii and Cyclotella meneghiniana develop where the river becomes wider and deeper. The distribution of the diatomological flora in the Matanza-Riachuelo basin was affected by the increasing concentration of organic matter carried by the river and downstream for the input of chemical compounds, several of which are toxic to aquatic life (i.e. heavy metals, phenols, hydrocarbon, etc.). The assemblage was dominated by pollution-tolerant species, which implies strong to very strong contamination in a great portion of the basin.

1 comment

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: